First Aid

What is Self Aid?
Emergency treatment one applies to oneself

Name some items that you might use as a splint from your military equipment
•        Bayonet
•        Rifle
•        Entrenching tool
•        Tent poles and stakes
•        Web belt

What is the quickest way to splint a broken leg?
Tie the broken leg securely to the unbroken leg

How many pressure points, which can be used to control bleeding with fingers, thumbs or
hands are there on the human body?
11

What is the object of first aid?
1.        To stop bleeding
2.        Overcome shock
3.        Relieve pain
4.        Prevent infection

What FM covers first aid for soldiers?
FM 4-25.11

What is First Aid?
It is the first care given to casualties before treatment by medical personnel can be made available

What is the unique feature of type "O" blood?
It is a universal donor

When would you not remove a casualties clothing to expose a wound?
If in a chemical environment or if the clothing is stuck to the wound

What soldiers are most likely to suffer heat injuries?
Soldiers not accustomed to the heat, overweight soldiers, prior heat casualties, and soldiers already
dehydrated due to alcohol use, diarrhea, or lack of water (insufficient use of)

How high should an injured limb be elevated above the heart to control bleeding?
2 to 4 inches

What are the lifesaving steps? (The ABC's of medical treatment)
1.        Open the airway and restore breathing
2.        Stop the bleeding / Protect the wound
3.        Prevent shock

When applying splint, where should the bandages be tied?
The bandages should be tied with knots against the splint

Whose first aid dressing should be used on a casualty?
Use the casualty’s field dressing.

How should the ends of an improved pressure dressing be tied?
Tie the ends together in a nonslip knot, directly over the wound site. DO NOT tie so tightly that it has a
tourniquet-like effect.

What is manual pressure?
If bleeding continues after applying the sterile field dressing, direct manual pressure may be used to help
control bleeding. Apply such pressure by placing a hand on the dressing and exerting firm pressure for 5 to
10 minutes. The casualty may be asked to do this himself if he is conscious and can follow instructions.

Should a casualty be given water to drink?
He should not eat or drink

Why should you dress and bandage the wound as soon as possible?
To protect the wound from further contamination of germs, and also to control the bleeding

What should you do to indicate that a casualty has received a tourniquet?
Mark his or her forehead with a T and if possible, note the time of the application of the tourniquet

Should you ever remove or loosen a tourniquet?
No, only qualified medical personnel can do that

Where is a tourniquet applied?
Place the tourniquet around the limb, between the wound and the body trunk (or between the wound and the
heart). Never place it directly over a wound, a fracture, or joint. Tourniquets, for maximum effectiveness,
should be placed on the upper arm or above the knee on the thigh.

How can you prevent athlete's foot?
Keep your feet clean, use foot powder and change socks daily

Name 3 categories of heat injuries
1.        Heat cramps
2.        Heat exhaustion
3.        Heat stroke

What are the signs and symptoms of heat cramps?
1.        Cramping in the extremities (arms and legs)
2.        Abdominal Cramps (stomach)
3.        Excessive Sweating

What is the treatment for heat cramps?
1.        Move the casualty to a cool, shady area or improvise shade if none is available.
2.        Loosen his clothing (if not in a chemical environment)
In a chemical environment, transport the heat casualty to a noncontaminated area as soon as the mission
permits.
3.        Have him slowly drink at least one canteen full of water. (The body absorbs cool water faster than
warm or cold water; therefore, cool water is preferred if it is available.)
4.        Seek medical assistance should cramps continue.

What are the signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion?
1.        Excessive sweating with pale, moist, cool skin
2.        Headache
3.        Weakness
4.        Dizziness
5.        Loss of appetite
6.        Cramping
7.        Nausea (with or without vomiting)
8.        Urge to defecate
9.        Chills (Gooseflesh)
10.        Rapid Breathing
11.        Tingling of Hands/Feet
12.        Confusion

What would the treatment be for heat exhaustion?
1.        Move the casualty to a cool, shady area or improvise shade if none is available.
2.        Loosen or remove his clothing and boots (unless in a chemical environment); pour water on him and
fan him.
3.        Have him slowly drink at least one canteen of water.
4.        Elevate his legs.
5.        If possible, the casualty should not participate in strenuous activity for the remainder of the day.
6.        Monitor the casualty until the symptoms are gone, or medical assistance arrives.

What are the signs and symptoms of heat stroke?
1.        Skin is red, hot and dry
2.        Weakness
3.        Dizziness
4.        Confusion
5.        Headaches
6.        Seizures
7.        Nausea
8.        Stomach pains or cramps
9.        Respiration and pulse may be rapid and weak.
10.        Unconsciousness and collapse may occur suddenly.

What would the treatment be for heat stroke?
Cool casualty immediately by—
1.        Moving him to a cool, shady area or improvising shade if none is available.
2.        Loosening or removing his clothing (except in a chemical environment).
3.        Spraying or pouring water on him; fanning him to permit the coolant effect of evaporation.
4.        Massaging his extremities and skin, which increases the blood flow to those body areas, thus aiding
the cooling process.
5.        Elevating his legs.
6.        Having him slowly drink at least one canteen full of water if he is conscious.
7.        Seek medical assistance immediately

If a casualty were suspected of having a neck/spinal injury or severe head trauma, which method
would you use for opening an airway?
The jaw thrust technique, because in most cases it can be done without extending the neck

What are two basic types of fractures?
1.        Open (compound)
2.        Closed (simple)

What are some signs of an open fracture?
•        Bleeding.
•        Bones sticking through the skin.
•        Check for pulse.

What are some signs of a closed fracture?
•        Swelling.
•        Discoloration.
•        Deformity.
•        Unusual body position.
•        Check for pulse.

With an open fracture, what should you do first?
Stop the bleeding

What is the basic proven principle in splinting fractures?
"Splint them where they lie"

How tight should tourniquet be?
Tightened until the bright red bleeding has stopped.

What are the three types of bleeding?
1.        Arterial- Blood is bright red and will spurt with each heart beat
2.        Venous- Blood is dark red and flows in a steady stream
3.        Capillary- Blood oozes from the wound

Name 4 common points for checking pulse
1.        Carotid- The side of the neck
2.        Femoral- The groin
3.        Radial- The wrist
4.        Posterior Tibial- Ankle

What are some signs/symptoms of shock?
•        Clammy skin (cool, pale and damp)
•        Restlessness and nervousness
•        Thirst
•        Loss of blood
•        Confusion
•        Fast breathing
•        Nausea or vomiting
•        Blotched or bluish skin (especially around the mouth and lips)
•        Often perspires freely
•        May pass out.

What is the treatment for shock?
“P.E.L.C.R.N.” (Pronounced Pell-Crin)
•        Position the casualty on their back
•        Elevate the Legs
•        Loosen clothing at neck waist or wherever it is binding
•        Climatize (prevent too hot or too cold)
•        Reassure (keep the casualty calm)
•        Notify medical personnel (Help, Get a medic!!)

What is a heat injury?
A loss of water and salt, loss of sweat while personnel work in the heat, a general dehydration of the body

What is the greatest preventive measure for disease?
Cleanliness

How do you stop bleeding?
•        Apply a field dressing
•        Manual pressure
•        Elevate the limb
•        Apply a pressure dressing
•        Digital Pressure
•        Apply a tourniquet

What is CPR?
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, it is used to restore a heart beat

When can measures taken to restore breathing in an individual be discontinued?
•        When a doctor tells you to stop
•        When others relieve you
•        When you cannot physically continue
•        When the casualty starts to breath on his own

What is AIDS?
AIDS is the end stage of the HIV infection. At this point, the virus has attacked and weakened a person's
immune system

Name two types of rescue breathing
1.        Mouth to mouth
2.        Mouth to nose

What do the letters AIDS stand for?
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

When should a casualty not be placed in the shock position?
When the casualty has a:
•        Head injury
•        Abdominal wound
•        Fractured (unsplinted) leg

How long is direct manual pressure applied to control bleeding?
5 to 10 minutes

What should you do prior to leaving an unconscious casualty?
Turn their head to the side to prevent them from choking on their own vomit

When should a tourniquet be used to stop bleeding?
As a last resort when everything else has failed or when an arm or leg has been severed off

What does COLD stand for?
It is a key word in cold weather protection, it stands for Keep it CLEAN, Avoid OVERHEATING, Wear it
LOOSE and in layers and Keep it DRY

What are the 8 steps in evaluating a casualty?
Check for:
1.        Responsiveness
2.        Breathing
3.        Pulse
4.        Bleeding
5.        Shock
6.        Fractures
7.        Burns
8.        Possible concussions (head injuries)

What is the first indication of frostbite?
Skin becomes numb and white particles/patches form on it

What do you do to treat frostbite?
Remove clothing from the affected area, warm with body heat, dress the area and seek additional medical
help

When should an airtight dressing be applied to a sucking chest wound?
As the individual breathes out

How should you position a casualty with an open abdominal wound?
On his back with his knees up to relieve abdominal pressure

What do you do with exposed abdominal organs?
Wrap them in dry clean material and place on top of the abdomen (never try to put them back in)

How do you take the Carotid pulse?
Carotid pulse. To check the carotid pulse, feel for a pulse on the side of the casualty’s neck closest to you.
This is done by placing the tips of your first two fingers beside his Adam’s apple.

In reference to carrying a casualty, what are the two-man methods?
•        Two-Man Support Carry
•        Two-Man Arms Carry
•        Two-Man Fore-and Aft-Carry
•        Four-Hand Seat Carry
•        Two-Hand Seat Carry

In reference to carrying a casualty, what are the one-man methods?
•        Fireman's carry
•        Supporting carry
•        Arms Carry
•        Saddleback carry
•        Pack-strap carry
•        Pistol belt carry
•        Pistol belt drag
•        Neck drag
•        LBE Carry Using Bearers LBE
•        LBE Carry Using Casualty’s LBE
•        Cradle Drop Drag

Should you put any medication or cream on a burn?
No

Name the four types of burns
1.        Thermal
2.        Electrical
3.        Chemical
4.        Laser

What is the primary objective in the treatment of burns?
Lessen or prevent shock and infection

What are the three categories used in medical evacuation?
1.        Urgent- within 2 hours
2.        Priority- within 4 hours
3.        Routine- within 24 hours

What is the first aid procedure for a white phosphorous casualty?
Smother the flame by submerging the affected area in water or pack with mud. Then remove the particles
by brushing or picking them out

What is the first step in the first aid of a burn victim?
Remove the casualty from the source of the burn

What are the 2 prescribed methods for opening an airway?
1.        The jaw thrust
2.        Head tilt/chin lift methods

What is the major cause of tooth decay and gum disease?
Dental plaque

What are the 9 mild symptoms of nerve agent poisoning?
1.        Unexplained runny nose
2.        Unexplained headache
3.        Sudden drooling
4.        Difficulty seeing (dimness of vision and miosis)
5.        Tightness in the chest or difficulty in breathing
6.        Localized sweating and muscular twitching in the area of contaminated skin
7.        Stomach cramps
8.        Nausea
9.        Tachycardia followed by bradycardia (Tachycardia is an abnormally rapid heartbeat wth a heart rate
of over 100 beats per minute. Bradycardia is a slow heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute)

What are the 11 severe symptoms of nerve agent poisoning?
1.        Strange or confused behavior.
2.        Wheezing, dyspnea (difficulty in breathing), and coughing.
3.        Severely pinpointed pupils.
4.        Red eyes with tearing.
5.        Vomiting.
6.        Severe muscular twitching and general weakness.
7.        Involuntary urination and defecation.
8.        Convulsions.
9.        Unconsciousness.
10.        Respiratory failure.
11.        Bradycardia.
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