Camouflage and Concealment

What is Camouflage, Concealment and Decoys (CCD)?
CCD is the use of materials and techniques to hide, blend, disguise, decoy, or disrupt the appearance of
military targets and/or their backgrounds. CCD helps prevent an enemy from detecting or identifying
friendly troops, equipment, activities, or installations. Properly designed CCD techniques take advantage
of the immediate environment and natural and artificial materials.

What Army Field Manual covers Camouflage, Concealment, and Decoys?
FM 20-3

Is each Soldier responsible for Camouflaging and Concealing themselves and their equipment?
Yes, Practicing good CCD techniques lessens a soldier's probability of becoming a target.

The primary goal of CCD is to avoid enemy detection. What seven rules are critical when
considering how to avoid detection or identification?
1.        Identify the enemy's detection capabilities.
2.        Avoid detection by the enemy's routine surveillance.
3.        Take countermeasures against the enemy's sensors.
4.        Employ realistic, CCD countermeasures.
5.        Minimize movement.
6.        Use decoys properly.
7.        Avoid predictable operational patterns.

Any change in an existing terrain pattern will indicate the presence of activity. Terrain patterns
have distinctive characteristics that are necessary to preserve. What are the 5 general terrain
patterns?
1.        Agricultural. Agricultural terrain has a checkerboard pattern when viewed from aircraft. This is a
result of the different types of crops and vegetation found on most farms.
2.        Urban. Urban terrain is characterized by uniform rows of housing with interwoven streets and
interspersed trees and shrubs.
3.        Wooded. Woodlands are characterized by natural, irregular features, unlike the geometric patterns
of agricultural and urban terrains.
4.        Barren. Barren terrain presents an uneven, irregular work of nature without the defined patterns of
agricultural and urban areas. Desert environments are examples of barren terrain.
5.        Arctic. Arctic terrain is characterized by snow and ice coverage.

What is decoying?
Decoying is deploying a false or simulated target(s) within a target's scene or in a position where the
enemy might conclude that it has found the correct target(s). Decoys generally draw fire away from real
targets. Depending on their fidelity and deployment, decoys will greatly enhance survivability..

The LCSS is the standard Army camouflage net currently available, What do the stainless steel
fibers in the LCSS do?
They reduce a vehicle's visual and radar signatures. Stainless steel fibers in the LCSS material absorb
some of the radar signal and reflect most of the remaining signal in all directions. The result is a small
percentage of signal return to the radar for detection.

The radar-scattering capabilities of the LCSS are effective only if there is how much space
between the LCSS and the camouflaged equipment if the LCSS completely covers the
equipment?
There must be at least two feet of space.

When using natural materials to camouflage it is important to what?
Not disturb the look of the natural surroundings and also use materials that are commonly found in that
specific are.

There are two types of cover and concealment. What are the two types?
1.        Natural cover - ravines, hollows, reverse slopes, bushes, grass and shadows
2.        Artificial cover - foxholes, trenches, walls, burlap, nets, or natural materials that are moved from their
original spots, such as leaves bushes, or grass

When do you camouflage a fighting position?
Camouflage as you prepare it

What is cover?
Physical protection from bullets, fragments of exploding rounds, flame, nuclear effects and biological and
chemical agents.

What is concealment?
Protection from enemy observation

What do you do with the excess dirt when digging a fighting position?
Take excess dirt away from the position to the rear

One of the key factors of good camouflage is blending. What is blending?
Blending is trying to alter a target's appearance so that it becomes a part of the background. Generally, it is
arranging or applying camouflage material on, over, and/or around a target to reduce its contrast with the
background.

Give several examples of natural materials, which can be used to camouflage both you and your
equipment.
Leaves, bushes, and grass

How often should you change the camouflage when using natural material?
When it doesn't look natural and blend in with the natural surroundings

How do you camouflage your clothes and LBE?
Clothes, LBE and other weapons and equipment will have outlines altered by irregular patterns added to
blend with the predominant color of the background in the area

After camouflaging your position what should you do?
Inspect it from the enemy's viewpoint at least 35 meters forward

What do you do with tracks that lead into your position?
Cover or brush them

Where should live foliage be gathered?
As far as possible behind your position, so the enemy cannot see where it has been taken from.

What are two types of cover?
1.        Natural
2.        Man-made

What are some examples of Natural cover?
•        Logs
•        Trees
•        Stumps
•        Ravines
•        Hollows

What are some examples of Man-made cover?
•        Fighting positions
•        Trenches
•        Walls
•        Rubble
•        Craters

Give some examples of natural concealment?
•        Tree limbs
•        Bushes
•        Grass
•        Shadows.
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