Battle Focus Training
What is the number one principle of peacetime training?
Replicate battlefield conditions
Primarily, there are three methods used to present training. What are they?
1. Demonstration (Most Preferred Method)
3. Lecture (Least Preferred Method)
What does effective training require?
Effective training requires the personal time, energy, and guidance of commanders.
What is the Army training standard?
The standard for the Army is to train and maintain to the published standards in Technical Manuals (TMs)
-10 and -20.
When does the greatest combat power result?
The greatest combat power results when leaders synchronize combat support (CS) and combat service
support (CSS) systems to compliment and reinforce one another.
Once soldiers and units have trained to the standard, how do they maintain proficiency?
They maintain proficiency through sustainment training.
Which FM covers Battle Focused Training?
How do commanders determine their units' METLs?
Commanders determine their units' METLs based on war and external directives.
What do leaders use to assess soldier, leader, and unit proficiency?
Leaders use evaluations and other feedback to assess soldier, leader, and unit proficiency.
How should units train during peacetime?
Units should train in peacetime, as they will fight during war. Peacetime training must replicate battlefield
conditions. All training is based on this principle.
The evaluation of collective training is critical to assessing what?
The evaluation of collective training is critical to assessing a unit's capability to perform its METL tasks.
What is a Battle Roster?
Listing of individuals, crews, or elements that reflects capabilities, proficiencies of critical tasks, and other
information concerning war-fighting capabilities.
What is a TEWT and where is it conducted?
Tactical Exercise Without Troops. The TEWT is conducted on actual terrain with unit leaders and staffs,
without soldiers. A TEWT allows the battalion TF or company commander to train his staff and subordinate
What must soldiers, leaders, and units be proficient in to perform their missions under battlefield
Soldiers, leaders, and units must be proficient in the basic skills required to perform their missions under
What is the FCX (Fire Coordination Exercise)?
An exercise that can be conducted at platoon, company/team, or battalion/task force level. It exercises
command and control skills through the integration of all organic weapon systems, as well as indirect and
supporting fires. Weapon densities may be reduced for participating units, and sub-caliber devices
substituted for service ammunition.
Where may the CPX (Command Post Exercise) be conducted?
The CPX may be conducted in from garrison locations or in between participating headquarters.
Should all maintenance be on the unit's training schedule?
What are the ten principles of training?
1. Commanders are responsible for training
2. NCOs train individuals, crews, and small teams.
3. Train as a combined arms and joint team.
4. Train for combat proficiency
5. Train to standard using appropriate doctrine
6. Train to adapt
7. Train to maintain and sustain
8. Train using multi-echelon techniques
9. Train to sustain proficiency
10. Train and develop leaders.
What are STXs (Situational Training Exercise)?
STXs are mission-related, limited exercises designed to train one collective task, or a group of related
tasks and drills, through practice.
What drives the M.E.T.L. development process?
What is the AAR?
The AAR is a structured review process that allows training participants to discover for themselves what
happened, why it happened, and how it can be done better.
Where does the CFX (Command Field Exercise) lay?
The CFX lies on a scale between the CPX and the FTX.
What is the next step for the battalion commander once the METL is developed?
Once the METL is developed, the battalion commander briefs his next higher wartime commander who
approves the METL
What is a battle drill?
A battle drill is a collective action rapidly executed without applying a deliberate decision-making process
Who do AC commanders brief the QTB to?
AC commanders brief the QTB to the commander’s two levels above.
What is the LCX (Logistical Coordination Exercise)?
LCXs allow leaders to become proficient at conducting unit sustainment operations such as supply,
transportation, medical, personnel replacement, maintenance, and graves registration.
How can commanders insure that training is effective?
They must personally observe and assess training at all echelons
What may NCOs use is assessing squad, crew, and soldier proficiency?
NCOs may use a leader book is assessing squad, crew, and soldier proficiency.
What does battle focus drive?
Battle focus drives METL development allowing the commander to narrow the scope of his training
challenge to make it manageable.
What two things does sustainment training do?
1. Trains on tasks, which build on skills mastered by the soldier, leader, and units.
2. Uses opportunity training to constantly hone proficiency on known tasks.
When are FTXs (Field Training Exercise) conducted?
FTXs are conducted under simulated combat conditions in the field.
For noncommissioned officers, who are the key players in the reception and integration phase?
For noncommissioned officers, the CSM and 1SG are key players in the reception and integration phase
The CSM and key NCOs review and refine the supporting tasks for two things in each unit. Name
those two things.
1. Each skill level in every MOS within the unit
What type of training excites and motivates soldiers and leaders?
Training that is tough, realistic, and mentally and physically challenging.
What does the combat training center program provide?
The combat training center program provides the most realistic environment available for corps and
subordinate units during peacetime.
Why is it particularly important to train and monitor low-density MOS soldiers?
Sometimes their hours are different and they get lost in the shuffle and therefore remain untrained if not
monitored and included in training
The unit leader development program consists of what three phases?
1. Reception and integration
2. Basic skills development
3. Advanced development and sustainment.
Training schedules are developed at what level and approved by whom?
Developed at company level and approved by the battalion commander
Name the four elements of TADSS.
1. Training aids
What does near-term planning define?
Near-term planning defines specific actions requires to execute the short-range plans. It is the final phase
of planning prior to the execution of training.
What four skills does challenging training build?
1. Builds competence and confidence by developing new skills.
2. Instills loyalty and dedication.
3. Inspires excellence by fostering initiative, enthusiasm, and eagerness to learn.
4. Builds aggressive, well-trained soldiers.
What begins the training planning process?
What does the basic skills development phase ensure?
The basic skills development phase ensures that the new leader attains a minimum acceptable level of
proficiency in the critical tasks necessary to perform his mission.
What are training aids?
Training aids are items that assist in the conduct of training and the process of learning.
In the military structure, what is the lowest level that has battle tasks?
What does the company commander do after he develops the METL?
He briefs the battalion commander
What do principles of training provide?
The principles provide direction, but are sufficiently flexible to accommodate local conditions and the
judgment of commanders and other leaders
What does the advanced development and sustainment phase involve?
The advanced development and sustainment phase involves sustaining those tasks already mastered and
developing proficiency in new tasks.
What is multi-echelon training?
Multi echelon training allows simultaneous training and evaluation on any combination of individual and
collective tasks at more than one echelon. Multi echelon training is the most efficient and effective way to
train and sustain proficiency on mission essential tasks within limited periods of training time.
At battalion level, how does long-range planning start?
At battalion level, long-range planning starts with unit assessment and is the basis for the long- range
What unit is the lowest level to have a METL?
What is a low density MOS?
A MOS within an organization or unit that is required but applies to a very small amount of soldiers
What is long-range planning based on?
Long-range planning is based on unit assessment.
Give some examples of training aids.
• Visual modification (VISMOD) sets; for example, BRDM-2 mock-up.
• Graphic training aids (GTAs); for example-
• GTA 10-2-2, Fuel System Supply Point
• GTA 6-5-2, Fire Direction Kit
• GTA 3-6-3, NBC Warning and Reporting System
• Models; for example, inert munitions.
• Displays; for example, 35-millimeter slides on training topics.
• Books; for example, documentation on training aids.
• Pictures to support briefings and presentations.
• Magnetic media; for example, training films.
Why must the entire METL development process be understood by NCOs?
So that NCOs can integrate soldier tasks
What do leaders list in the leader book?
Leaders list in the leader book the common tasks found in the Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks that
support the METL.
Are training meetings negotiable at battalion and company level?
No. Training meetings are non-negotiable at battalion and company level.
What is a crew drill?
A crew drill is a collective action that the crew of a weapon or piece of equipment must perform to use the
weapon or equipment
A leader may use information in the leader book to provide what?
A leader may use information in the leader book to provide input on his unit during daily "huddles" and
company training meetings.
What is risk assessment?
Risk assessment is the thought process of making operations safer without compromising the mission.
What is band of excellence?
The range of proficiency within which a unit is capable of executing its wartime METL tasks
Commanders select a particular training exercise or combination of exercises based on what?
Commander select a particular training exercise or combination of exercises based on specific training
objectives and on available resources.
Do soldiers have a legal responsibility to attend scheduled training?
What are training devices?
Training devices are three-dimensional objects that improve training.
What needs to be identified at the appropriate level to support the accomplishment of the units
mission essential tasks?
Leader and soldier tasks must be identified.
What are simulators?
Simulators are a special category of training devices that replicate all or most of a systems functions.
What is the most difficult task for an AAR leader?
To avoid turning the discussion into a criteria or lecture
When selecting exercises, commanders must consider what key questions?
• Who will be trained (soldiers, leaders, teams, or units)?
• What are the training objectives?
• Which, if any, of the training exercises are most suitable to accomplish each objective?
• What are the available resources (time, training areas, equipment, money)?
• Which of the training exercises or combination will help meets the training objectives within the
available training resources?
What does the battle staff consist of?
The battle staff consists of the battalion staff and battalion slice (CS and CSS elements that are tasked-
What does the MAPEX portray?
The MAPEX portrays military situations on maps and overlays.
When are informal AARs usually conducted?
Informal AARs are usually conducted for soldiers and crew, squad, and platoon-level training, or when
resources are not available to conduct a formal review.
Give some examples of simulators.
• Conduct-of-fire trainer (COFT); for examples, M2 BFV and M1 Abrams.
• Flight simulators.
• Simulations networking (SIMNET).
What is the battlefield operating systems (BOS)
A tool that the TF commander may use to organize his battle tasks is the battlefield operating systems
What are simulations?
Simulations provide leaders effective training alternatives when maneuver and gunnery training
opportunities are limited.
What are pre-execution checks?
Pre-execution checks are the informal planning and coordination conducted prior to training execution.
When are formal AARs usually conducted?
Formal AARs are normally conducted at company level and above.
What is training strategy?
The method used to attain desired levels of training proficiency on METL
What are the five basic fundamentals that commanders and leaders must use?
Historically speaking, more casualties occur in combat due to what?
When used properly, simulations can create what?
When used properly, simulations can create the environment and stress of battle needed for effective
command and battle staff training.
Why aren't AARs critiques?
AARs are not critiques because they do not determine success or failure.
What are two keys to success in combat?
Night training and adverse weather training are keys to success in combat.
What does AAR stand for and what does it provide?
After Action Review. An AAR provides feedback to units by involving participants in the training diagnostic
process in order to increase and reinforce learning. The AAR leader guides participants in identifying
deficiencies and seeking solutions.
What are post operation checks?
Tasks a unit accomplishes at the conclusion of training.
What begins the training planning process?
The assessment begins the training planning process.
What is lane training?
Lane training is a technique for training primarily company team-level and smaller units on a series of
selected soldier, leader, and collective tasks using specific terrain.