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Navigate from One Point on the Ground to
Another Point While Dismounted

Conditions: Given a standard topographic map of the area, scale 1:50,000, a coordinate scale and protractor, a compass, and writing materials.

Standards: Move on foot to designated points at a rate of 3,000 meters per hour.

Performance Steps
1.        Determine your pace count.
a.        When you have to go a certain distance on foot, you can measure distance by counting your paces. The average Soldier travels uses 116 paces to travel 100
meters. Check your pace length by practicing on a known 100-meter distance, like a football field plus one end zone, which totals 110 yards (about 100 meters).
b.        When you travel cross-country as you do in the field, you use more paces to travel 100 meters, usually about 148 instead of 116. This is because you are
traveling over uneven ground, and must use more paces to make up for your movement up and down hills. You should check your pace over at least 600 meters of
criss-crossing terrain to learn how many paces it takes you to travel an average 100 meters over such terrain.
c.        Be sure you know how many paces it takes you to walk 100 meters on both level and criss-crossing terrain.
(1)        The challenge in pacing is to maintain a straight line. At night, people tend to walk in a clockwise circle unless they use compasses. In daylight, you should
use aiming points and a compass. Also, remember to figure only the straight-line distance when you have to walk around an obstacle.
(2)        Another challenge is keeping count of paces taken. One way is to use pebbles. For instance, suppose you want to pace off 1 kilometer. (A kilometer is 1,000
meters or the distance between two of the black grid lines on your map.) Put ten pebbles in your right pocket. When you go 100 meters, move one pebble to your left
pocket and start your count over. When all ten pebbles had been moved to your left pocket, you have traveled 1 kilometer. Or, you can tie knots in a string, one knot per
100 meters.
d.        Sample problem: You are to move 715 meters. Your pace count for 100 meters is 116 paces.
(1)        Using the pebble method, you need seven pebbles to mark the 700 meters. But how many paces will you need to cover the other 15 meters?
(2)        To determine this, multiply 15 meters by your pace count (116), that is, 15 x 116 = 1,740. Mark out the last two numbers (40). The remaining digits, 17, indicate
the number of paces you will need to go 15 meters.
(3)        So you would go 715 meters using the pebble method by pacing off 116 paces per 100 meters until all seven pebbles are used, then go an additional 17
paces to arrive at 715 meters.
2.        Navigate from one point to another using terrain association. This technique uses terrain or man-made features as landmarks or checkpoints to maintain the
direction of movement. Use this technique anywhere, day or night, as long as the terrain has distinguishable features. You use terrain association when moving from
the unit area to the motor pool. You walk down the road or sidewalk using intersections or buildings to steer or turn on (landmarks or checkpoints). In the field, where
you might have no roads or buildings, you use terrain features for your axis and checkpoints.
a.        Locate your position on the map, and then locate your destination or objective. A straight line between the two is seldom the best way to travel. For example,
look at Figure 071-329-1006_01. Assume that you are to move from A to B. Notice that traveling a straight line between them might take you through several ridges
and valleys (the "X's" on Figure 071-329-1006_01).

Figure 1. Straight-line route.

b.        When adjusting your route, consider the following:
(1)        Tactical aspect. Avoid skylining open areas and danger areas like streams or crossings on roads and hilltops. Your tactical concern is survival. The mission is
causing you to move to your objective. You need to be sure you get to that objective. Looking at Figure 071-329-1006_02, you decide for tactical reasons to cross the
stream where you would not be seen from the road (C) and to cross the road in a small valley (D). You know that valleys offer better cover and concealment, so you
will use them (E and F).

Figure 2. Adjusted route.

(2)        Ease of movement. Always pick the easiest route that the tactical situation will allow. However, you achieve surprise by doing the unexpected. However, a
difficult route increases your chance of getting lost. Also, traveling a difficult route might be noisy and can tire you out before you reach your objective.
(3)        Boundaries. Traveling in a straight line is almost impossible, with or without a compass. Pick an axis or corridor. Pick boundaries that you can spot or feel.
Hardtop roads, streams, high grounds, and railroads all make good boundaries. This way, if you start to wander too far off course, you will know it.
c.        Suppose you decide that the route in Figure 071-329-1006_03 offers ease of movement. Check your axis up the valley (1, Figure 071-329-1006_03); across the
ridge at the saddle (2, Figure 071-329-1006_03); cross the stream, turn left and keep the stream on the left, high ground on the right (4, Figure 071-329-1006_03); to
the third valley (5, Figure 071-329-1006_03); to the saddle, then on the objective (6, Figure 071-329-1006_03).

Figure 3. Route of travel.

d.        With boundaries to keep you straight, you need to know where on your corridor you are located. Use checkpoints to do this. The best checkpoint is a line or
linear feature that you cannot miss, because you must cross a linear feature across your corridor, or axis no matter where you are in the axis. Use hardtop roads,
railroads, power lines, perennial streams (solid blue lines; the dashed blue lines indicate streams that are frequently dry), rivers, ridges, and valleys.
NOTE: Do NOT use light-duty roads and trails, because a map never shows everything on the ground. DO NOT use wood lines, either, because they are rarely
e.        Refer to Figure 071-329-1006_03 and pick your checkpoints.
(1)        The saddle--use Hill 241 to line on up the right valley, which you will follow to--
(2)        The stream, which you will move alongside it until...
(3)        The bend in the stream, when you turn right to...
(4)        The road in the valley (the ridge crossing on the road on the 12 grid line will serve as a limiting feature), then up to...
(5)        The far saddle, and right to your objective (B).
f.        If you cannot find linear features, use an elevation change--a hill or depression, a small ridge, or a valley. Look for one contour line of change during the day, two
at night. Regardless of contour interval, you will spot a contour interval of change on foot.
g.        Determine the distance between checkpoints. DISTANCE IS THE CAUSE FOR MOST NAVIGATIONAL MISTAKES. Estimate or measure the distance from one
checkpoint to another, then trust that distance.
h.        Refer to Figure 071-329-1006_04 and check your distances:
(1)        500 meters to the saddle (1).
(2)        800 meters to the stream (2).
(3)        500 meters to the bend in the stream (3).
(4)        300 meters to the road (4).
(5)        1,000 meters to the far saddle (5).

Figure 4. Checkpoints.

3.        Navigate from one point to another using dead reckoning.
a.        Dead reckoning is a technique of following a set route or line for a determined distance. Use this technique on flat terrain such as deserts and swamps. You
can use this technique day or night. To use dead reckoning--
(1)        Locate the start and finish points on the map (Figure 071-329-1006_05).

Figure 5. Distance between checkpoints.

(2)        Determine the grid azimuth from the start point to the finish point, or to the first intermediate point on the map.
(3)        Convert the grid azimuth taken from the map to a magnetic azimuth.
(4)        Determine the distance between the start and finish points or between any intermediate points on the map.
NOTE: If you do not know how many paces you take for each 100 meters, you should move to a 100-meter course and determine your pace count.
(5)        Convert the map distance to pace count.
(6)        Make a thorough map reconnaissance of the area between the start point and the finish point.
b.        Before moving from the start point, shoot an azimuth on a well defined object on the ground in the direction of travel. These objects, known as steering points,
may be lone trees, buildings, rocks, or any easily identifiable point. At night, the most likely steering point will be a star. Due to the rotation of the earth, the positions of
the stars continually change. You must check your azimuth frequently, but only when halted. Using your compass while you are moving will cause you to go off-course.
Your steering mark might be beyond your objective. Remember to travel the distance you determined.
c.        Once you have selected a steering point, you should move toward it, remembering to begin your count. For every 100 meters you travel, you should have some
method of tracking the number of 100 meters you travel.
d.        Upon reaching your first steering point, shoot an azimuth to another steering mark, and repeat step c until you reach the finish point.
e.        If you should encounter an obstacle, you might have to detour around it (Figure 071-329-1006_06). To do this, complete a series of 90-degree turns until you
bypass the obstacle and return to your original azimuth.

Figure 6. Bypassing an obstacle.

(1)        At the edge of the obstacle, make a note of the number of paces taken to this point.
(2)        To detour to the right, add 90 degrees to your original azimuth.
(3)        Using the new azimuth, pick a steering mark and move toward it, making sure you begin a new pace count. Move on this azimuth until you reach the end of the
(4)        Stop and note the number of paces taken, and again add or subtract 90 degrees from the azimuth just read, and move to the far side of the obstacle.
(5)        Upon reaching the far side, stop the count and note the number of paces taken; add this number to the pace count noted in step (1).
(6)        Again add or subtract 90 degrees from the azimuth used, and then move the same number of paces you took on the first leg of your offset or detour.
(7)        Place the compass on your original azimuth, pick up the pace count you ended with when you cleared the obstacle, and proceed to your finish point.
f.        Bypassing the same obstacle at night calls for special considerations:
(1)        To make a 90-degree turn, hold the compass as you would to determine a Magnetic Azimuth.
(2)        Turn until the center of the luminous letter "E" is under the luminous line (do not change the setting of the luminous line).
NOTE: If you turn to the right, "E" is under the luminous line. If you turn to the left, "W" is under the line.
(3)        Proceed in that direction until you outflank the obstacle.
(4)        Turn until the north arrow is under the luminous line, and then proceed parallel to your original course until you have bypassed the obstacle.
(5)        Turn until the "W" is under the luminous line and move back the same distance you originally moved.
(6)        Finally, turn until the North arrow is under the luminous line, and then proceed on your original course.
(7)        You must count your paces just as you do when you bypass an obstacle in daylight.
g.        After reaching the finish point, conduct a detailed terrain analysis to confirm your location.
4.        Navigate from one point to another by comparing and combining terrain association with dead reckoning.
a.        You will often have to consider the advantages and disadvantages of each technique.
(1)        Terrain association is fast and easy, and it allows for mistakes. It also is subject to map accuracy and can only be used with recognizable terrain features.
(2)        Dead reckoning is accurate and works on flat terrain that lacks terrain features; however, all work must be precise, and the technique takes time.
b.        Sometimes you will have to combine the techniques. For instance, in the desert, you might need to use dead reckoning to arrive at or near a road or ridge, and
then use terrain association to follow that feature to an objective.

Evaluation Preparation: SETUP: Select an area with varying terrain and vegetation that is large enough to have two points, 1,000 to 2,000 meters apart. Each point is
on or near an identifiable terrain feature and is marked on the ground with a sign containing a letter or number. Dummy signs are placed not less than 100 meters
nor more than 200 meters to the right and left of the correct point. Clearly mark correct points on the map. Prepare a sheet of paper giving the azimuth and distance for
each leg of the course to be covered. Have pencils available for the tested Soldier.

1. Terrain Association.
a. Give the Soldier the map and tell him to identify the best route to take between the two points that have been plotted on the map (1,000 to 2,000 meters apart).
NOTE: The best route must have been determined by an SME before the test.
b. Give the Soldier the map and tell him he must move from point A on the map to point B (1,000 to 2,000 meters apart) using terrain association (no compass is
used). Tell the Soldier he has _______ time to complete the course.
2. Dead Reckoning. Give the Soldier the sheet of paper with the azimuth and the distance for each leg of the course (three to five points, 200 to 500 meters apart), and
the compass; no map will be used. Tell the Soldier to move over the course shown by the azimuth and the distance on the paper. Tell the Soldier to record the letter or
number at the end of each leg of the course. Tell the Soldier he has ______ time to complete the course.
NOTE: Time standards are based on the average time it takes two SMEs to complete the course plus 50 percent. For example, SME time, 1 hour. 1 hour added to 50
percent = Course Test Time of 1 hour, 30 minutes.
Soldiers being tested are given 10 minutes to study the map and to determine their course of action. At the end of this time, the Soldier moves to the start point and
begins the test. Time starts when Soldiers leave the start point and ends when the finished point is crossed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                               Performance Measures        GO        NO-GO
1.        Terrain association.                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ——        ——
a.        Within 10 minutes, identified the best route, and explained why you picked it.                
b.        Wrote down the correct letter or number at the end of each leg of the course.                
2.        Dead reckoning.                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ——        ——
a.        Wrote down the correct letter or number of each leg of the course.                
b.        Arrived at correct destination within the specified time.                

Evaluation Guidance: Score the Soldier GO if all performance measures are passed. Score the Soldier NO-GO if any performance measure is failed. If the Soldier
scores NO-GO, show the Soldier what was done wrong and how to do it correctly.

Required        Related
FM 3-25.26        
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