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Engage Targets During an Urban Operation

Conditions: Given an individual weapon with ammunition and load-bearing equipment in urban terrain, with the enemy location uncertain, and specific rules of
engagement (ROE).

Standards: Engage targets to suppress or kill the enemy.

Performance Steps
1.        Move with your assigned individual weapon using one of the two weapons-carrying techniques for an urban environment. When moving, hold your weapon with
the muzzle pointed in the direction of travel. Place the butt of the rifle or carbine into the pocket of your shoulder. Point the muzzle slightly downward to allow you an
unobstructed view. Use your firing hand only to fire; use your nonfiring hand to open things, to signal, or to throw grenades.
2.        Shoot while moving toward the point of domination. Take shots as close to the target as 1 or 2 inches. You will shoot while the clearing team members are
moving. Therefore, use a "careful hurry." Do not rush in with disregard for any obstructions that might litter the floors, just to get to the points of domination. The most
important point is to lead with your weapon, not with your body. Move no faster than you can accurately engage targets.
3.        Avoid " flagging," or leading, with the weapon when working around windows, doors, corners, or areas where you must negotiate obstacles. Flagging the
weapon warns anyone looking in that direction, making it easier for an enemy to grab your weapon or to react to the clearing team. Control your weapon at all times.
4.        When moving in buildings or rooms, you can use either of two weapons-carrying techniques with the M16A2 or M4. The purpose of using these techniques is
to prevent injuries to friendly personnel. These techniques are "low ready" and "high ready."
a.        Low ready position. Place the butt of the weapon firmly in the pocket of your shoulder, with the barrel pointed downward at a 45-degree angle. This is the safest
ready position. Use it while clearing rooms, except when you are actually entering and clearing.
b.        High ready position. Hold the butt of the weapon under your armpit, with the barrel pointed slightly upward. Keep the front sight assembly under your line of
sight, but within your peripheral vision. To engage a target, push the weapon out as if to bayonet the target. When the weapon leaves your armpit, slide it up into your
firing shoulder. This technique is best suited for the lineup outside the door.
c.        Stance. Keep your feet about shoulder-width apart. Point your toes straight to the front, that is, in your direction of movement. Stagger your firing side foot slightly
to the rear of your nonfiring side foot. Bend your knees slightly and lean your upper body slightly forward. Avoid rolling or slouching your shoulders. Keep your firing
side elbow in against your body. Modify as needed to ensure that you maintain a comfortable boxer stance. When engaging targets, hold the weapon with the butt in
the pocket of your shoulder.
5.        Detect targets in your assigned sector and discriminate between enemy and friendly. If multiple targets are present, determine the most immediate threat first,
and engage it. Then, switch to the next most immediate threat, and so on, until you complete the engagement. Be prepared to reengage targets that remain standing
or that are resisting.
NOTE: In close-quarters combat encounters, engagements are within 10 meters and happen very fast, that is, the target might only be exposed for a few seconds.
Most close-quarters engagements are won by hitting first and putting the enemy down. Knocking down a man as soon as possible is more important than killing him.
To win a close-quarters engagement, you must make quick, accurate shots by mere reflex. To do this, you must properly apply reflexive firing techniques. This
method of shooting is the only way for the clearing team members to succeed consistently with the least casualties.
6.        Aim. The following four aiming techniques all have their place in urban operations:
a.        Slow aimed fire. This technique is the most accurate. Obtain a steady, properly aligned sight picture, and squeeze off rounds. Use this technique for
engagements between 25 and 50 meters, or when accuracy is more important than speed.
b.        Aimed quick kill. Place the front sight post flush on top of the rear aperture sight. Use this for very quick shots from 0 to 11 meters. Again, windage is important,
but elevation is less critical relative to the target.
c.        Instinctive fire. This is the least accurate technique. Focus on the target and point the weapon in the general direction using muscle memory reflex to fire. One
technique is to adjust the placement of your nonfiring hand for accuracy. While gripping the handguard, extend your index finger down the barrel, so that, when you
point your index finger toward the target, the barrel is automatically on line.
d.        Shot placement. When clearing a room, incapacitate enemy soldiers immediately. Shots that merely wound or that are mortal but fail to incapacitate the target
at once are only slightly better than clean misses.
NOTE: Two fundamentals of successful reflexive firing techniques:
1. Always fire until the enemy goes down.
2. Keep both eyes open.
7.        Concentrate on achieving solid, well-placed hits to the target. You can achieve these by aiming and striking a target center of mass.
8.        The lethal zone of the target is center mass between the waist and the chest (torso lethal zone 18"x8") or center mass in the head and neck area (neck/head
lethal zone 4"x8").
9.        You must know the capabilities of your weapon, and you must control your fires during target engagement.
a.        Controlled Pair. The front sight post moves in a natural arc after the round is fired and the recoil kicks in. Let the barrel go with this arc, and then immediately
bring the front sight post back on target. Reacquire the sight picture and take a second shot. Do not fight the recoil. Keep shooting until the enemy goes down.
b.        Automatic Fire. Automatic fire is an option in a close-quarters combat environment. It is effective for violence of action when you need fire superiority to gain
entry. Fire automatic fire in controlled bursts only (two to three rounds). Once properly trained, you will be able to fire 6 rounds (two bursts) in the same time that you
could fire 2 rounds in a controlled pair. Accuracy is important when engaging targets with automatic fire. The major disadvantages are the amount of ammunition
used and the slight reduction in control of fire. Normally, only the first and second Soldiers entering a room should use this technique, due to the possibility of a stray
round. However, the M249 gunner must become proficient in this technique, and he might be used in any entry position.  One technique to ensure accuracy is to
concentrate on squeezing, not jerking, the trigger. Jerking the trigger is a common tendency when firing automatically.
10.        If your weapon malfunctions during any close-quarters combat, immediately take a knee to perform immediate action, unless you are in a doorway or
staircase. In such a situation, seek cover, if possible. If needed, stand up to engage targets. Avoid impeding the movement of the other team members. Save
precious seconds by continuing to engage from one knee. Whenever other members of the team see a Soldier take a knee, they must automatically clear his sector
of fire. Before rising, warn the clearing team members that you are about to move, and only rise after they acknowledge. This reduces the chance of fratricide among
team members. Another technique is to remain in place until after the engagement, when another team member comes and signals you to arise.

Evaluation Preparation: SETUP: At the test site, provide all materials and equipment given in the task condition statement.

BRIEF SOLDIER: Tell the Soldier that he will be moving as a designated member of an assault element in urban terrain. Enemy strength and location are unknown.

                                                                                                                                                                                                               Performance Measures        GO        NO-GO
1.        Demonstrated two weapons carrying techniques inside the building.                                                                                                                            ——        ——
2.        Engaged enemy targets; do not engage civilians or friendly forces.                                                                                                                                ——        ——
3.        Engaged targets using aiming techniques.                                                                                                                                                                          ——        ——
4.        Engaged targets using appropriate trigger-control method.                                                                                                                                              ——        ——
5.        Demonstrated shot placement in lethal zone.                                                                                                                                                                      ——        ——
6.        Continued to fire until target went down.                                                                                                                                                                                ——        ——
7.        Cleared malfunctions.                                                                                                                                                                                                                ——        ——

Evaluation Guidance: Score the Soldier GO if all performance measures are passed. Score the Soldier NO-GO if any performance measure is failed. If the Soldier
scores NO-GO, show the Soldier what was done wrong and how to do it

Required        Related
FM 3-21.71
FM 7-8
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