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React to Unexploded Ordnance Hazards

Conditions: In a field environment, given an item(s) of simulated unexploded ordnance (UXO), marking materials, and a 9-line Explosive Hazard Spot Report
(formally the UXO Spot Report).

Standards: Identify UXO by type and subgroup; recognize associated hazards; take immediate action to prevent death, injury, or damage to materiel; and report the
UXO hazard using the 9-line Explosive Hazard Spot Report (formally the UXO Spot Report).

Performance Steps
1.        Recognize the UXO hazard.
Never approach any closer to a UXO once it has been identified.  Approaching UXOs may cause to explode.

Never strike, jar, or touch a UXO.  Do not move or remove anything on or near a suspect UXO.  UXOs can be extremely sensitive and can cause serious injury or
death if disturbed in any way.

Many types of UXO may contain an incendiary (fire producing), chemical, biological, or radiological hazard in addition to explosives.

Do not make radio transmissions within 100 meters of a UXO.  Some types of UXO are sensitive to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and may explode.
a.        Identify the four types and subgroups of UXO.
(1)        Dropped.
( a)        Bombs (see figure 093-401-5040-1).
-Vary in length from 3 to 6 feet.
-Vary in diameter from 5 to 36 inches.
-Often have a sloped or "bullet" shaped nose, fins, and/or a parachute on the back.
-May contain high explosive, incendiary, or chemical fillers.

( b)        Dispensers (see figure 093-401-5040-2).
-Contain numerous submunitions or bomblets.
-Most have the same characteristics of bombs.
-May be found intact or partially open.

( c)        Submunitions (see figures 093-401-5040-3a through 093-401-5040-3e).
-Can contain explosive, chemical, biological, radiological, and/or incendiary hazards.  
-Designed to be scattered over a wide area.
-Come in many shapes and sizes; may or may not be "bullet" shaped.  May look like balls, wedges, or cylinders.
-May have fins, ribbons, parachutes, or trip wires.

When a submunition is identified, leave the area by the same path you entered.  There may be many more in the immediate area.

Small size does not diminish the danger of submunitions the smallest can easily injure or kill.
(2)        Projected
( a)        Projectiles (see figures 093-401-5040-4a and 093-401-5040-4b).
-Includes munitions from large machine guns, artillery howitzers, and naval guns.
-Range in size from 20 mm up to 16 inches in diameter and 10 to 30 inches in length.
-Most resemble a "bullet" shape.
-Can contain explosive, chemical, biological, radiological, and/or incendiary hazards.

( b)        Mortars
-Most have fins and have a "bullet" shape.
-Range in size from 60 mm to 120 mm in diameter and 12 to 36 inches in length.
- Can contain explosive, chemical, and/or incendiary hazards.

( c)        Rockets
-May or may not have fins; have some sort of rocket motor vents in back.
-Range in size from 24 inches to several feet in length.
-Can contain explosive, chemical, and/or incendiary hazards.

( d)        Guided missiles (see figures 093-401-5040-7a and 093-401-5040-7b).
-Most have fins; some have wires in the end for guidance.
-Very similar to rockets.
-Can contain explosive or incendiary hazards.

( e)        Rifle grenades (see figures 093-401-5040-8a and 093-401-5040-8b).
-Designed to be fired from rifles or shoulder fired launchers.
-Resemble rockets but are of smaller sized.
-Can contain explosive and/or incendiary hazards.

(3)        Thrown (see figures 093-401-5040-9a and 093-401-5040-9b).
-Includes all types of grenades, including simulators.
-Most are round or cylindrical in shape and are small enough to be thrown by a person.
-Can contain explosive and/or incendiary hazards.
-Dud simulators require the same safety procedures as other ordnance.

Never approach a grenade that was thrown and did not detonate, even if you threw it.  Do not move, jar, or disturb as the fuze may function at any time.

Never pick up, move, or disturb a found grenade, even if the spoon or safety pin is attached.  It may be booby trapped to explode when disturbed.
(4)        Placed (see figures 093-401-5040-10a and 093-401-5040-10b).
-Includes all land or sea mines.
-Range in size from 2 inches in diameter to several feet in length.
-Have a variety of fuze types pressure plates, tilt rods, trip wires, electronic sensors, or command detonated.
-Can contain explosive, incendiary, or chemical hazards.

Consider all mines to be booby trapped or have antidisturbance fuzing.   Never attempt to uncover or remove placed ordnance.
2.        React to the UXO hazard.
a.        Do not touch or disturb the UXO or any wires, parachutes, or anything attached or surrounding the UXO.  Do not move any closer to the UXO.
b.        If any peculiar smells, liquids, or dead animals are present, chemical or biological agents may be present; don mask and MOPP gear immediately.
3.        Mark the UXO hazard.
a.        Mark the location (without approaching any closer) with some sort of recognizable material (such as white engineer tape, marking ribbon, clothing, or signs).
b.        Place marker above ground at waist level if possible.  Note physical terrain features of the location and route back to the UXO in order for the EOD team to
return to dispose of the UXO.
4.        Determine appropriate evacuation distance.
a.        Evacuate personnel and equipment from the area surrounding the UXO:
(1)        For bombs, dispensers, large projected munitions (90-mm diameter and larger), evacuate a 360-degree perimeter at least 600 meters.
(2)        For submunitions, placed, thrown, small projected munitions (smaller than 90-mm diameter), evacuate a 360-degree perimeter at least 300 meters.
b.        If personnel or equipment cannot be evacuated, seek as much frontal and overhead cover as possible.
c.        If UXO is suspected to have a chemical agent, ensure all personnel stay upwind of the item and are in full MOPP.
5.        Report the UXO hazard.
a.        Report UXO hazard to your chain of command.  You or your chain of command should request Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) support using the nine-
line Explosive Hazard Spot Report (formally the UXO Spot Report):
(1)        Date and time of the fall, impact, or finding of the UXO item(s).
(2)        The exact location of item(s) including grid coordinate (8-digit minimum), landmarks, reference points, or street addresses.
(3)        The name and organization of person reporting the incident including call sign or phone number.
(4)        Identify UXO by type (dropped, projected, thrown, placed) and subgroup.
(5)        Any CBRN contamination present?
(6)        What resources are threatened?
(7)        How the UXO has affected unit mission.
(8)        The safety measures that have been taken including the evacuation distances that have been accomplished.
(9)        The requested priority for receiving EOD support (immediate, indirect, minor, no threat).
b.        Be prepared to provide a guide for to the EOD team.

Evaluation Preparation: Setup:  Do not evaluate this task using live UXO.  Use training items from your local installation training support center.  Preliminary
instruction of this task can be obtained by requesting support from the nearest Army EOD company.  Evaluate this task during any training exercise where UXO is
likely to be encountered.  Place UXO training aid near personnel, facilities, or equipment (within the Soldier's area of responsibility).  Soldier should identify UXO
from a distance of 5 to 10 meters away or by using binoculars.

Brief Soldier:  Tell the Soldier that he or she will be evaluated on his or her ability to properly recognize, react, mark, and report a UXO hazard and also determine the
appropriate evacuation distance.  The Soldier will identify the UXO by type and subgroup, take appropriate actions to react to the hazards, and report the hazard
using the nine-line Explosive Hazard Spot Report (formally the UXO Spot Report).  
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Performance Measures        GO        NO-GO
1.        Recognized the UXO hazard.                                                                                                                                                                                                     ——        ——
2.        Reacted to the UXO hazard.                                                                                                                                                                                                       ——        ——
3.        Marked the UXO hazard.                                                                                                                                                                                                              ——        ——
4.        Determined appropriate evacuation distance.                                                                                                                                                                        ——        ——
5.        Reported the UXO hazard.                                                                                                                                                                                                           ——        ——

Evaluation Guidance: Score the soldier GO if all performance measures performed correctly.  Score the soldier NO GO if any performance measure is not performed
correctly.  If the soldier scores NO GO, show the soldier what was done wrong and how to do it correctly.

Required        Related
FM 21-16        
GTA 9-12-1        
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